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Wednesday, June 26, 2013

bubble sort and merge sort

I promised to write about bubble sort and merge sort in my previous blog http://crazyhottommy.blogspot.com/2013/06/define-python-function-find-biggest.html?view=sidebar

Finally, I got some time to write it. My undergraduate helped me to do some molecular cloning stuff today, I guess I will be too lazy to do bench work :)


The examples I am going to use are from the MIT open course lecture 9 and 10
http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-00-introduction-to-computer-science-and-programming-fall-2008/video-lectures/lecture-9/

http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-00-introduction-to-computer-science-and-programming-fall-2008/video-lectures/lecture-10/

The question is that you have a list of numbers, and how do you sort it from small to big.

I will lay down the python code first.

A trick....I copied (M-w) the code from my emacs editor and tried to paste (ctrl-v)  in the blog, but it did not work. In fact, click the  middle mouse button did the trick :)


# a demonstration of buble sort and merge sort, p is a list of integers
# for bubble sort  swap the values if p[i+1] < p[i]


def bubblesort(p):
    for j in range(len(p)):
        for i in range(len(p)-1):
           if p[i] > p[i+1]:
                 temp = p[i]
                 p[i] = p[i+1]
                 p[i+1] = temp
    return p


# for bubble sort, we can do better, when there is no swap, we stop the for loop


def bubblesort2(p):
      swapped = True
      while swapped:
            swapped = False
            for i in range(len(p)-1):
                  if p[i] > p[i+1]:
                        temp = p[i]
                        p[i] = p[i+1]
                        p[i+1] = temp
                        swapped = True
      return p
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

# divide and conqure method merge-sort

# divide the list in half, continue until we have single list, merge sub-lists

def mergesort(p):
      # print p
      if len(p) < 2 :
            return p[:]
      else:
            middle = len(p) / 2
            left = mergesort(p[:middle])   # this is the beauty of recursion, further break down the list to smaller lists
            right =mergesort(p[middle:])
            together = merge(left, right)
            #print "merged", together
            return together


      # now we need to define the merge function, this function merges two sorted lists of numbers.

def merge(left, right):
      result = []
      i,j = 0,0
      while i < len(left) and j < len(right):
                    if left[i] <= right[j]:
                        result.append(left[i])
                        i = i+1
                    else:
                        result.append(right[j])
                        j = j+1
      while i< len(left):
            result.append(left[i])
            i = i + 1
      while j < len(right):
            result.append(right[j])
            j = j + 1
      return result

--------------------------------------------------------------

The code above is pretty self-explanatory.
for bubblesort, we have a nested loop, the inner loop put the biggest number to the end of the list every time when execute the outer loop.

bubblesort2 uses a variable "swapped" to track  if there is any swap occurs. if no swap occurs, the list is already pre-sorted, quit the loop.  return the result.

mergesort splits the list into smaller sub-list until only single number list. Then, we merge back the sorted list into a big list.

Let's have a look at the performance of these three functions by Ipython's magic function %time


In [15]: time a=bubblesort(range(10000))
CPU times: user 7.86 s, sys: 0.00 s, total: 7.86 s
Wall time: 7.88 s

In [16]: time a=bubblesort2(range(10000))
CPU times: user 0.00 s, sys: 0.00 s, total: 0.00 s
Wall time: 0.00 s

In [17]: time a=mergesort(range(10000))
CPU times: user 0.05 s, sys: 0.01 s, total: 0.06 s
Wall time: 0.05 s

in this particular test, I generated a list of range(10000): [0,1,2,3,4,5......999]
you will see bubblesort took the longest time, because it is not aware that the list is already pre-sorted.
bubblesort2 caught that and return the result instantly.
performance of mergesort is also decent. If we had a not pre-sorted list, the mergesort would out-perform the bubblesort2.

Finally, I want to show off my Emacs python editor :)












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